The construction of the petrochemical complex, five kilometers from the Miankaleh Reserve, began with the visit of the Minister of the Interior to Mazandaran Province, but on April 26, it was announced that the President had ordered the project to be halted pending environmental considerations. Done. Miankaleh Protected Area will face an increase in pollution with the establishment of the petrochemical industry. Of course, the main problem is the condition of the swamp. Due to drought and water shortage, the amount of water entering the Miankaleh swamp is very low. In the past three decades, the sea level in the Caspian Sea has decreased by about 2 meters and the sea area has decreased by about 15,000 square kilometres.
This has affected coastal communities, the environment and ocean bays of economic importance. To assess the effects of coastal change and land fragility, sea level was modeled using total nutrient river flow, precipitation and evaporation into the sea. Different regions of the Caspian Sea are sensitive to changes in precipitation, evaporation and total inflow: 25,000 square kilometers of this sea may be subject to drought fluctuations in sea level, 2% of which is weak off the coast of Iran. Sea level in the Caspian Sea is sensitive to evaporation, for example, a 1 mm decrease in average annual precipitation reduces sea area by 1,875 km², but results in a decrease in km3 in average annual flow. The reduction will be 1,400 square kilometers of marine area.
These results can be used to assess future changes in sea level and sea area due to human activities and climate change. The most important environmental challenges of the Caspian Sea are rising water levels, environmental pollution, the introduction of alien species into the Caspian Sea, and the destruction of plant reservoirs. These challenges forced the marine countries to conclude the Caspian Marine Environment Framework Convention in 2003. The Caspian Sea is the largest landslide off the coasts of Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan, with one exception that was part of the former Soviet Union. Although they differ greatly in size, population, ethnic composition, and political theory, their common interests are in maximizing the great energy wealth of the Caspian Basin and in successfully addressing environmental issues affecting exploration, production, processing, and the like.
The issue of the environmental safety of scarce energy resources is nowhere more complex than in the Caspian Basin, as other environmental variables affect the exploration, production and transportation of petroleum and petrochemical products in this diverse ethnic, regional and political region. The Caspian Basin is a region with potential oil reserves located to the south of politically unstable regions. Analysts agree that Caspian oil provides an important source of unconventional Persian Gulf oil, although the reserves cannot be proven without further drilling and exploration. Correct estimates of recyclable oil reserves range from 15 to 35 billion barrels. These are huge sums, but not close to the 200 billion barrels that are often seen in media reports. These resources are large compared to regional production figures of about 3.5 million barrels per day, but they are only about half of Saudi oil production. But according to the available information, the Caspian Sea is not a reliable alternative to reserves of oil and petrochemical products, and the Persian Gulf.
Russia has long-standing regional dominance through the Soviet Union and benefits from pipeline revenues, but it struggles with growing economic power and the independence of unstable states on its southern border. China, which is the basin of the Tarim River (the basin of the Xinjiang Tarim River – western China – and about 1,800 km), the Tarim, whose Iranian name is tropical and is now known as Xinjiang China, has long suffered from the cradle of growth and the South China Sea. . An ethnic minority dependent on the resources of Southwest Asia and the Caspian Basin. Environmental concerns affect global oil production.
In the Caspian Basin, exploration and production of petroleum products are carried out mainly by oil companies in accordance with the environmental laws of the host countries. Environmental concerns pervade oil production, transportation, and petrochemical development in the Caspian Basin. The rising Caspian Sea level made it difficult to define the boundary and to produce and transport oil and oil reserves. Declining fisheries have drawn public attention to the oil industry and complex politics. In oil transportation, the environmental problem is at the heart of pipeline routing decisions. The economic empowerment and significant environmental challenges can be attributed to the development of huge hydrocarbon reserves. Extraction from the bottom of the Caspian Sea has been in continuous development since the beginning of the 19th century. Recent innovations in bulk oil and gas reserves have increased drilling operations in almost all coastal countries, and energy transmission corridors have been created primarily for the Chinese, Russian and European markets. The construction of a petrochemical complex along the shores of the Caspian Sea may increase economic activity and local employment, but it may also increase the environmental impact of the Caspian Sea. There are great concerns about the effects of climate change on the waters of the Caspian Sea.
* Published in Etimad Magazine / 28 Farvardin 1401